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Research Basics: Referencing /Citation

A basic guide to library research, proper citation, avoiding plagiarism, planning your thesis.

Referencing Glossary

Referencing is the process of acknowledging in detail all the information sources (books, journal articles, images, data, webpages, etc.) that you have included in your in-text citations. References form a list with full details of sources placed at the end of an assignment or paper allowing your readers to directly consult the sources you have used.

An In-text Citation is when you acknowledge the sources you have used within the body of your writing or assignment. In-text citations are also known as citations and should be used when you:

  • use direct quotations (exact Words) from an original source
  • paraphrase or summarize information from a source (taking the thoughts and ideas of someone else and reworking them)
  • include the work of another person or institution in your assignment (for example images, tables, computer code, words 

A reference list gives the details of the sources you have cited in your assignment so that someone else can find the original source.

A bibliography is like a reference list. The difference is that it lists all the sources you have consulted on a topic, even if you have not referred to them directly in your work. It gives your lecturer a picture of the information you have looked at to complete your assignment.

Example:   Hegarty, C. (2011). Irish Case Studies in Entrepreneurship. Cork, Oak Tree Press.

Harvard Style Citation Guides

Zotero is a full citation management tool that allows you to collect and organize a research library, and then generate citations from what you've accumulated. It is a very fast product which will save you a lot of time once you've learned how to use it.  To download go here:
To create a quick bibliography go here: https://
For a full guide on using Zotero check out this LibGuide

A powerful knowledge organization tool, Citavi allows you to import and analyze research to give you more control over your projects. It also features the ability to export citations and create bibliographies. 
Here is a video to get a brief overview of its potential. Go here to download Citavi.